【中英双语】跨大洋飞行-教程

社区成员大家好我在这里会做一篇关于跨洋(海洋)飞行的一些教程及步骤
Oceanic Flying in an airliner often involves long stretches of flying with no radar coverage or communication with Air Traffic Control.
在客机上的海洋飞行通常涉及长时间的航线飞行。通常没有雷达在大洋上覆盖,也没有与空中交通管制部门的通信功能。
Oceanic tracks on Infinite Flight allow aircraft to complete successful oceanic crossings by following predetermined routes, much like a highway in the sky, that are regularly updated to adapt to traffic volume and weather patterns.
无限飞行中的海洋轨道,使飞机可以按照预定路线(如空中公路)成功完成海洋交叉,这些路线会定期更新以适应交通量和天气状况。

Join me as I show you how to file and fly the North Atlantic Track (NAT) from London to New York with a few critical steps to tackle any oceanic track!
加入我,我会展示如何通过一些关键步骤来解决从伦敦到纽约的北大西洋轨道(NAT)并将其飞往纽约的问题!

这里是infinite flight上的跨洋教学步骤,在下方我会用双语进行解释。
请用YouTube打开此教学视频:Oceanic Flying Tutorial 跨洋飞行视频教学

1.What is Oceanic Flying?
1.什么是海洋飞行?
Oceanic Flying is exactly that, flying across large stretches of ocean to connect continents. It is unique in that it often involves flying for considerable lengths of time with limited radar coverage, and with limited options for diversions.
海洋飞行就是客机飞越广阔的海洋(各大洋)以连接各大洲。 它的独特之处在于,它通常需要飞行相当长的时间,雷达覆盖范围有限,并且转换选项也有限。

2.What is an Organized Track System (OTS)?
2.什么是有组织的跟踪系统(OTS)?
An Organized Track System (OTS) is often used whilst flying these stretches of airspace. They are a set of predetermined routes that are updated regularly to help optimize traffic flow and satisfy separation requirements.
飞行这些空域时通常使用组织跟踪系统(OTS)。 它们是一组预定路线,这些路线会定期更新以帮助优化交通流量并满足隔离要求。(例如:太平洋上的常见三组预定路线)

The North Atlantic (NAT) Tracks, also known as the North Atlantic Organized Track System (NAT-OTS), is an example of these structured flight routes. As the principle is the same for other OTSs, only the NAT Tracks are covered in this guide.
北大西洋(NAT)航迹,也称为北大西洋有组织航迹系统(NAT-OTS)。是这些结构化飞行路线的示例。 由于其他OTS的原理相同,因此本指南仅涵盖NAT(北大西洋)轨道。

The NAT Tracks cover a vast area, laterally it includes multiple Control Areas (CTAs) that stretch from the northeast of North America, all the way to western Europe. And vertically, a band of airspace between FL285 and FL420*.
NAT跟踪涵盖了一个广阔的区域,从其他方面看它包括多个控制区域(CTA),这些区域从北美的东北部一直延伸到西欧。 在垂直方向上,FL285和FL420 之间有一定的空域。

  • Note that FL290 and FL410 are the last usable flight levels that can be assigned to an aircraft operating within this band of airspace
    请注意,FL290和FL410是可以分配给在该空域内运行的飞机的最后可用飞行级别。

3.How do the NAT Tracks work?
3.NAT跟踪如何工作?

Due to the large horizontal separation criteria, and limited height band; the airspace can be very congested and therefore the OTS is constructed to accommodate as many flights as possible with two major alternating flows:
由于水平分隔标准大,且高度带有限; 空域可能非常拥挤,因此OTS的构造可以容纳两个主要交替流的尽可能多的航班:

  • a westbound flow departing Europe in the morning
    早上从欧洲西行的客机流量
  • an eastbound flow departing North America in the evening
    傍晚离开北美的东行的客机流量

As well as this, due to weather patterns (including the presence of jet streams); the NAT Tracks are aligned to minimize any headwinds and to maximize tailwinds. This results in much more efficiency by reducing fuel burn and flight time. But for this to be possible, the routes are updated twice daily to take into account the shifting winds aloft and the principal traffic flow.
除此之外,由于天气模式(包括喷射流)的影响; NAT轨道对齐以最大程度地减少任何逆风,并最大程度地增加顺风。 通过减少燃油消耗和飞行时间,可以提高效率。 但是,要做到这一点,路线会每天更新两次,以考虑到高风在移动时和主要客机交通流量。

4.What do the NAT Track labels mean?
4.NAT跟踪标签是什么意思?
pilot-oceanic-flying@2x
Oceanic Flying 海洋(跨洋)飞行

In the westbound daytime system, the track most northerly, at its point of origin, is designated Track A (Alpha). The next most northerly track is designated as Track B (Bravo), this is then repeated as tracks move more southerly.
在客机向西行白天系统中,最北端的轨道在其原始点被指定为轨道A(阿尔法)。 下一条最北的轨道称为轨道B(Bravo),然后随着轨道向南移动而重复进行。

5.How do I fly a NAT Track?
5.如何运行NAT跟踪?
Step 1
Before departure, decide on the best NAT Track to use based on your destination, the aircraft weight (which will determine your initial cruising altitude) and the prevailing winds (there are loads of online tools that you can use to help with this)
第1步
出发前,根据目的地,飞机重量(这将决定您的初始巡航高度)和盛行的风(有大量在线工具可以帮助您在「以上链接」)确定最佳的NAT航迹

Step 2
Load your departure and then add a series of waypoints that will take you close to the start of the track you wish to use
第2步
加载您的出发点,然后添加一系列航点,使您接近要使用的轨道的起点

Step 3
From the map, tap the desired track and select the + icon to insert it into your flight plan. Much like an instrument procedure, a track in its entirety will display a green bracket.
第三步
在地图上,点击所需的航迹,然后选择(+)图标将其插入您的飞行计划中。 就像乐器程序一样,整个曲目中都会显示一个绿色的括号.

Step 4
Once airborne (and provided you have been given permission to change frequency), you only need to Check In with Departure or Center (if ATC is active). You will be expected to continue following your flight plan and they will only vector you if required.
第4步
一旦进行降落(并已获得更改频率的许可),您只需启用离港或中转程序(如果启用了ATC)。 预计您将继续遵循您的飞行计划,他们只会在需要时引导您。

PRO TIP
You do not need to stay with your device for the whole flight, but we do recommend you stay until you have reached your initial cruising altitude as a minimum. This allows ATC to provide de-confliction if required and also prevents system violations due to things like the Autopilot disconnecting (e.g. flying above your optimum cruising altitude when you are too heavy). By actively monitoring critical stages of flight, you will be able to avoid these issues!
Infinite flight pro用户贴士
您不需要在整个飞行过程中都随身携带设备,但是我们建议您一直待在直到达到最低初始巡航高度为止。 这使ATC可以在需要时提供冲突处理功能,还可以防止由于自动驾驶仪断开等原因(例如,当您太重时在最佳巡航高度上空飞行)而导致的系统违规。 通过积极监视飞行的关键阶段,您将能够避免这些问题!

这里是所有关于跨洋飞行的教程及贴士!祝大家都会有一个美好的飞行时光。
Reprint by Eason
Post comes from Tyler_SheltonStaff | ATC Manager

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