【中英双语】有风时该使用哪个跑道?

社区成员们大家好,在这里给大家带来一篇非常实用的中英帖子,关于如何计算在有风时进行降落或起飞
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Choosing the runway correctly is very important for a perfect departure and arrival. Sometimes this can be really confusing on how to choose the runway. To choose the runway, one should must learn how to decode a METAR. You can find it here.
正确选择跑道对于完美的起降非常重要。 有时,这会在如何选择跑道上确实造成混淆。 要选择跑道,必须学习如何对METAR进行解码。 你可以在这里找到它。


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BENEFITS OF WINDS 风的好处

Aircraft land and takeoff into the winds. Some of it’s benefits are -
飞机降落并起飞。 它的一些好处是在下面。

  1. It gives the aircraft greater climb rate or steeper descend rate (as required).
    它使飞机具有更高的爬升率或更低的下降率(根据需要)。
  2. It allows the plane to stop as the headwinds act as breaks on the plane. This makes the brakes of the plane relax and avoids overheating off the brakes.
    当逆风作用于飞机上的冲击时,它允许飞机停止飞行。 这使飞机的制动器放松并且避免了制动器的过热。

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CHOOSING THE RUNWAY 选择跑道

  1. If ATC is available, they would guide you to the suitable runway which is feasible considering traffic and weather.
    如果可以使用ATC,他们会引导您前往合适的跑道,考虑到交通和天气情况,该跑道是可行的。
  2. Runway to be used can be determined with the help of heading of winds. You can use the simple formula :
    可以借助风向确定要使用的跑道。 您可以使用简单的公式:
    | HEADING OF WINDS - 180° | = YOUR APPROACH HEADING
    | 风向-180°| =您的进近朝向
    Now you can use the runway which suits to your approach heading and the airport.
    现在,您可以使用适合进场方向和机场的跑道。

( | | → this sign indicates modulus )
(| |→此符号表示模数)
For better understanding, refer to the example below.
为了更好地理解,请参考以下示例。
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EXAMPLE OF RUNWAY CHOOSING 选择跑道的例子

Let us consider an example of VIDP runway 27/09. Look at the METAR reading below :
让我们考虑一个27/09 VIDP跑道的例子。 看看下面的METAR阅读:
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It shows that the winds are heading at 130° (magnetic) at 4 knots. So we can make a simple diagram out of it as shown below :
它表明风向以4节的速度向130°(磁)行进。 因此,我们可以制作一个简单的图表,如下所示:
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Now applying the formula above :
现在应用上面的公式:
→ | HEADING OF WINDS - 180° | = YOUR APPROACH HEADING
→| 风向-180°| =您的进近朝向

→ |130° - 180°| = 50°
So 50° should be my final approach heading in order to convert the wind into headwinds. But, VIDP does not have runway 05.
因此,将风转变为逆风应该是我最后的进近方向50°。 但是,VIDP没有跑道05。

Now,
现在,
→| 50°±90°| = 40°至140°
The above calculation shows that I can have my final heading anywhere between 40° and 140°. Now at VIDP I am available with runway 09 which has final magnetic heading of 90°.
上面的计算表明,我的最终航向可以在40°至140°之间的任何位置。 现在在VIDP,我可以使用09号跑道,其最终磁航向为90°。

So we can land on runway 09 at VIDP with the given METAR.
因此,我们可以使用给定的METAR降落在VIDP的09号跑道上。

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EXCEPTIONS 例外情况

There are some exceptions where you are allowed to land with tail wind. Some are :
在某些情况下,允许您顺风着陆。 一些是:

  1. ATC can use runway with tailwind in case of traffic. But if wind speeds exceed maximum allowed speeds, they will change the runway.
    在交通情况下,ATC可以使用顺风跑道。 但是,如果风速超过最大允许速度,它们将改变跑道。

  2. When crosswind component, including gusts, exceeds 15KT (28km/h), or the tailwind component, including gusts, exceed 5kt (9km/h), the pilot have to change the runway.
    当包括阵风在内的侧风分量超过15KT(28km / h),或者包括阵风在内的逆风分量超过5kt(9km / h)时,飞行员必须更换跑道。

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From Raveesh
Reprint by Eason

Thanks for reading!

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